Marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 infections

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Marianne Kaashoek
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Marianne Kaashoek
The virus. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is a member of the family of the Herpesviridae and the subfamily of Alphaherpesvirinae (Roizman et al., 1992). Characteristics of Alphaherpesvirinae are a variable host range, a short reproduction cycle and a rapid spread in cell culture, and the production of progeny virus invariably destroys infected cells (Roizman et ai., 1992). BHV1 has a linear double stranded DNA genome inside an icosadeltahedral nucleocapsid that is surrounded by a tegument and enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope. The size of the BHV1 DNA is approximately 136 kilobase pairs (Mayfield et ai., 1983), and at present almost the complete sequence is known (M. Schwyzer, personal communication). Up to now 69 different protein coding regions have been identified, coding for regulatory proteins, viral enzymes and structural proteins, among which at least nine transmembrane glycoproteins (Figure 1a). These transmembrane glycoproteins are embedded in the viral envelope and form projecting spikes. Glycoproteins play important roles e.g. in virus-cell interactions like attachment, penetration, cell-to-cell spread and egress (Spear, 1993). Glycoproteins also playa role in interactions with the immune system, like binding a complement component or immunoglobulins (Dubin et ai., 1991; Hung et ai., 1994). Glycoproteins gB, gD and probably also gH, gK and gL are essential in virus replication processes. Glycoproteins gC, gG, gI and gE are not essential for virus replication, but these glycoproteins do play essential roles in virus-host interactions.