The Water Balance of Tsetse Pupae

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Bursell E.
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The water balance of tsetse pupae has been studied by a number of workers, and in broad outline there is substantial agreement between results from different laboratories (Buxton & Lewis 1934; Mellanby 1936; Jack 1939; "Villett 1953). But the results of field investigations show no such agreement and their interpretation is consequently a matter of some difficulty. For example, Nash (1939) and Chorley (1929) have noted a seasonal cycle in the mortality of pupae under more or less natural conditions, and have related these fluctuations to correlated changes in certain physical factors. But if the arguments are examined in the light of laboratory studies it appears far from certain that the physical factors could in detail be responsible for the observed effects. Other workers have, on the contrary, been impressed with the constant emergence rate of pupae collected from the field at different seasons; some have attributed this constancy to constancy of the pupal environment (Buxton & Lewis 1934; Mellanby 1936); while others have suggested that the pupa is so well fitted to withstand adverse conditions that seasonal fluctuations in temperature and humidity would be unlikely to affect the mortality (Jack 1939). Although this divergence of views may in some measure be attributed to differences between the species examined, it seemed that the whole subject would merit re-investigation, with particular reference to the integration of field and laboratory data.
Bulletin, 241, p. 179-210