The Environment and Soil Profiles Characterization of Some Gully Sites Within Winam Gulf Soil and Water Conservation Project Area (Kisumu District).

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Ministry Of Agriculture
The success or failure of soil conservation is a function among others of, the interaction between the resident population (both human and anima!), environmental factors and the general land qualities. Such functional attributes determine what soil conservation methods are more effective in different areas and on different soils. Site characteristics and profile description from five sites on Nyakach gully and one site each on Kibos and Kibigori gullies represented a morphological description of the soils that are severely eroded. At each site, field description and sampling for laboratory analysis was done for the major horizons/layers for the entire soil depth. The historical background on the gullies together with some selected soil properties viz Soil texture, Structure, Base saturation, pH, Exchangeable Sodium Percent (ESP) and flocculation indices have been used to explain the gully phenomena within the Winam Gulf Soil and Water Conservation Project Area. High levels of exchangeable sodium and the stratified nature of the soil profiles (particularly in the subsufrace horizons/layers have impaired all the soil physical and chemical characteristics that influence its stability .The morphological, physical and chemical properties of a particular soil is an information that if not taken into account may render some conservation programmes and measures tragic failures.