Water Harvesting and Soil Moisture Retention Farmesa

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Date
2001
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Ministry Of Agriculture
Abstract
In Sub-Saharan Africa, a majority of the population derives their livelihood from agriculture are smallholder agriculture accounts for 75% of agricultural production, most of them practice rainfed agriculture. Drought is Africa's principal form of natural disaster and often it affects rainfed agriculture dramatically. The impact of population growth in rural areas are pushing communities into unsustainable farming practices such as burning and razing of tropical forests in order to plant crops, planting on steep slopes, moving into fragile marginal ecosystems, over cropping and over grazing - resulting in a subsequent depletion of fragile arable land and over-utilization of ground water resources. It has been estimated that a sixth of the world's land area, nearly 2 billion hectares, is now degraded as a result of overgrazing and poor farming practices. Water for agricultural purposes is getting scarce almost everywhere, and there are hardly any land reserves to be brought into production to widen the agricultural base. By 2025, close to three billion people in 48 countries will be affected by critical water shortage for all or part of the year.
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