The Analysis of Genotype-Environment-Interaction and Its Use in Breeding Materials of Arabica Coffee

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Date
1999
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Coffee Board of Kenya
Abstract
Coffee is an evergreen shrub or small tree, normally 3 to 5 m high which botanically belongs to the family Rubiaceae (genus Coffea). The name Coffee comes from the Arabian name for the drink, itself derived from Caffa, a district of southern Ethiopia. Coffee is used as the roasted product of the dried seeds "beans" (endosperm of seeds) which when ground and brewed gives a stimulating beverage containing Caffeine. It is thought that the roasting process that gives the characteristic aroma was discovered in Arabia in the 15th century. In its native Ethiopia, it is used as a masticatory since ancient times and is also cooked in butter to make rich flat cakes. In Arabia a fermented drink from the pulp is consumed. Coffee is widely used as a flavoring, as in ice cream, pastries, candies, and liqueurs. Source of caffeine, dried ripe seeds are used as a stimulant, nerving, and diuretic, acting on central nervous system, kidneys, heart, and muscles. In Indonesia and Malaysia an infusion is prepared from dried leaves. Coffee pulp and parchment used as manures and mulches, and is occasionally fed to cattle in India. Coffelite, a type of plastic is also made from coffee beans. Wood is hard, dense, durable, takes a good polish, and is suitable for tables, chairs, and turnery. Coffee with iodine is used as a deodorant (List and Horharnmer, 1969-1979). Caffeine has been described as a natural herbicide, selectively inhibiting germination of seeds of Amaranthus spinosus (Rizvi et ai, 1980). Caffeine is a widespread additive in over-the-counter diet pills, pain killers, and stimulants (Duke, 1984b). Coffee has been reported to be analgesic, anaphrodisiac, anorexic, antidotal, cardiotonic, CNS-stimulant, counterirritant, diuretic, hypnotic, lactagogue, nervine, stimulant, coffee is a folk remedy for asthma, atropine-poisoning, fever, flu, headache, jaundice, malaria, migraine, narcosis, nephrosis, opium-poisoning, sores, and vertigo (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horharnmer, 1969-1979).
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