Mechanisms of Hypobiosis in Haemonchus Contortus of Goats in Semi Arid Lands (SAL) in Kenya

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Siamba, N. D.
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Donald Namasaka Siamba
Small ruminants form an integral part of the livestock production systems in Arid and semi arid lands of Kenya and play a major role as a source of food and cash for investment and other household needs (Perry et al 2003). However, their productivity is constrained by among other factors, high prevalence of diseases especially infections caused by parasitic nematodes (Carles, 1992). Trichostrongylosis dominated by Haemonchus corntortus affects mainly young animals and can result in substantial economic losses from mortality and sub-optimal production in animals infected with even moderate burdens of parasites (Allonby and Urquhart, 1975; Fabiyi, 1987; Carles, 1992; Githigia et al 2001). In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Upton and Gathuma (1992) estimated that endoparasites cause an annual mortality and production losses in order of US$ 2 billion. In Kenya, it has been estimated that financial losses in small ruminants attributable to H contortus alone is US$ 31 million annually (Upton and Gathuma, 1992).